Located on an United States Air Force site near Gakona, Alaska, the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Project (HAARP) is the world's largest and most functional ionospheric heater. Construction began in 1993. Today, HAARP can generate super high powered beams of directed energy. HAARP is designed to shoot these energy beams 200 kilometers up into the sky; affecting an area known as earth's ionosphere. In doing this, HAARP can perform a number of functions.
The known uses of HAARP are: weather modification, power beaming, earth tomography (mapping of our planet's interior), Star Wars-type defense capabilities, enhanced communications, communication disruptions and mind control. For an in-depth discussion about what HAARP does and how it does it, you must read the 1995 book Angels Don't Play this HAARP by Dr. Nick Begich and journalist Jeane Manning. You can freely access a searchable .pdf here: http://freedomfchs.com/adpthaarp.pdf
Although lesser ionospheric heaters do not generate energy beams as powerful or possess the same functionality as HAARP, similar facilities are located around the world. Along with a smaller facility located near Fairbanks, Alaska, other ionospheric heater locations include: Puerto Rico, Norway, Russia, Tajikistan, Peru and the Middle East. The latest word is that Russia, China and the United States have set up HAARP-like facilities in Antarctica. (Source)
In order to increase functionality and effectiveness, ionospheric heaters are used in combination.
The HAARP website explains the differences between HAARP and other ionospheric heaters like this, "HAARP is unique to most existing facilities due to the combination of a research tool which provides electronic beam steering, wide frequency coverage and high effective radiated power collocated with a diverse suite of scientific observational instruments." HAARP can be remotely operated. HAARP employs technology originally envisioned and demonstrated by American inventor Nikola Tesla